Surface tension is a property of the surface of a liquid.
It is what causes the surface portion of liquid to be attracted to a solid surface.
Surface energy is the property of a solid.
There must be a perfect balance of the two for maximum bonding.
This can be measured using a Tensiometer.
It’s All About Energy
Hair extensions are manufactured hair that goes through a rigorous chemical process that changes the amount of energy on the surface of the hair.
Every surface has a measurement of energy and every liquid has a measurement of tension based on ions.
Since the surface energy has changed, the surface tension in products needs to be changed to properly affect this specific type of hair.
If the balance of the product is not right for the hair extensions, the product will either slide off without affecting the hair or bond too strongly creating build up.
Since human hair and/or hair extensions have a negative charge, manufacturers design their shampoos to have a negative charge, so that shampoo will not adhere and absorb into the hair (because like charges repel and opposite charges attract!)
Conditioners are designed to have a positive charge so that it will adhere with the negatively charged surface of the hair without leaving deposits.
Surface Tension and Product Interaction
All conditioners must be based on cationic (positively charged) conditioners (polymers) because they are highly attracted to the anionic (negatively charged) surface and will adhere to the hair extensions.
The challenge was to formulate and test conditioners that are attracted to chemically processed human hair and blend it with carriers that will disperse it on the hair’s surface.
We formulated our Ionix products that contains properties that are structured to match the ionic charge of processed hair.
The surface energy of this hair has been significantly altered from normal scalp hair, which is why normal conditioners either slide off the fiber or bond too strongly creating build-up.
Regular conditioners are made to interact with the surface of scalp hair while Ionix conditioners for hair extensions interact with the under layer.
A shampoo should quickly clean the surface and be rinsed off with water, taking with it dirt, oil and other residues.
A simple act that is made complicated by the very structure of hair extensions.
Regular healthy hair has two great advantages over hair extensions.
Even high quality cuticle hair extensions can easily dry out in a short time if the client is using regular shampoos, conditioners and heated styling tools.
How we developed our bleaching recipe
For the hair that no longer has the natural oils from the sebaceous gland or the cuticle wall to protect the fiber, it was necessary to create a hair extensions shampoo that is 100% sulfate-free and will preserve and extend the moisture necessary to keep the hair extensions looking and feeling silky.
Regular shampoo used on hair extensions will aggressively clean the surface, but it will also quickly penetrate into the hair, causing dramatic swelling and dryness.
Your hair extensions suffer damage from bleaching, dyeing and any other additional processes during manufacturing.
It is extremely vulnerable to swelling, and therefore, it is vulnerable to cleaning agents.
A common problem with processed hair is the tendency of swelling.
For hair to swell a solvent must penetrate into the hair and bonds must be broken.
Water and relative humidity (free moisture from the surrounding air) penetrate and cause breakage in primary hydrogen bonds.
This is reversible breakage and damage does not occur. But many chemicals penetrate, swell the hair and break covalent bonds that are irreversible and damage occurs.
Our hair extension products contain properties that are structured to match the altered surface energy of processed hair extensions or any type of chemically processed human hair.